The Jewish Festival of Lights (Hanukkah) commemorates the rededication of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem in 165 BC. Today begins the eight day observance on which candles are lit each day.
The Temple had been recaptured from the Greeks, who had contaminated most of the olive oil that was available for the lamps to be used in the victory celebration. Miraculously, a single cruse of uncontaminated oil was found. The Talmud tells us that, although the uncontaminated oil was only enough for one day, it lasted for eight days. Hence, the significance of the eight days of Hanukkah and the lighting of a candle each day.